Dr Aneeta Jabbar is currently a visiting consultant for Cornea and Refractive Surgery at Dr Rani Menon’s Eye Clinic. She finished her Fellowship in Cornea, Cataract and Refractive Surgery from LV Prasad Eye Institute, Hyderabad. She is a member and in the Executive Committee of the Kerala State Ophthalmic Surgeons Association (KSOS) and the Thrissur Academic Club of the KSOS.
The cornea is the outermost transparent layer of the eye that covers the iris, pupil, and anterior chamber letting the light surpass into the eye via the pupil and then on the retina situated at the back of the eye. There are three major corneal layers, the outer layer or epithelial layer, the middle layer or stroma, and a single layer called the endothelium. The curvature of the cornea helps in refracting light, a normal cornea is smooth, clear, and tough protecting the eye from any infection or any foreign particles. Any damage to the cornea because of infection or injury can affect your vision too. Sometimes, the cornea will heal itself but at other times, it will need extensive help to be healed.
Some of the diseases that can cause damage to the cornea:
Keratitis: This is an inflammation, that occurs when any bacteria, virus, or fungi get into the cornea because of any injury, infection, inflammation, etc.
Ocular Herpes: Also called Herpes of the eye, this viral infection can make frequent appearances, the main reason being Herpes Simplex Virus or HSV I causing cold sores. It creates sores on the cornea and the inflammation can spread into the eye or cornea.
Keratoconus: This causes thinning of the cornea, and the cornea becomes a cone shape at the bottom. The vision starts to blur during your adolescent years and begins to worsen when you reach adulthood. The change in the cornea’s curvature creates a mild to severe distortion called astigmatism and near sightedness. It can also cause vision loss, swelling and scarring, and zero-night vision.
Corneal Crosslinking – Crosslinking is used to treat keratoconus. In this procedure, the doctor instils riboflavin eyedrops and the eyes get exposed to a small amount of UV light preventing keratoconus from worsening.
Laser Therapy – Laser therapy can be your solution to heal infections and dystrophies. The laser beams can destroy the damage or irregular tissue and let the body replace it with a new one.